Mineral - Bromine
Bromine is a wonderful mineral, it is good for the stomach, so it has to be a very good mineral, right? Actually, it is good for the whole body, but its byline is "Good for the Stomach", as found in most literature, as it applies to biological applications of this mineral. Of all of the minerals that are involved in the operation of the stomach, perhaps Bromine is one of the most influential. There are some important connections with other minerals and some amino acids that work directly with Bromine, but more on that later. Lets us get the technical material out of the way first. Bromine is associated with the Serine amino acid and follows a UCA codon sequence. It is used 18,475,973 times in the DNA sequencing and carries a -1 valence. This mineral is extremely light in molecular weight, coming in at 79.80 and is recognized by the symbol of Br.
Bromine is found in almost all places on earth, with the earth's crust having about 2.5 ppm, in most soils at 5 ppm, and land animals at a level slightly above the soil levels, which indicates an accumulating effect. Land plants contain levels that are as high as 100 ppm and then down from there, depending on the plant species. However, the largest concentrations are found in sea water, or waters that have collected due to leaching of the earth's crust. In the saltwater bodies, it is found at high rates in Brown Sea Weed and marine animals, with those rates being up to 1000 ppm in many samples. The ratios of Bromine to Chlorine is about 1 Bromine to 660 Chlorine in most of the places were Bromine is sourced. In the industrial world, there is about 100 tons of Chlorine produced for every one ton of Bromine.
Bromine is sourced mainly from saltwater brine pools and from brine wells. This is the most efficient and cost-effective way to obtain Bromine commercially. Worldwide production is about 500 Kilograms per year and the vast majority of that comes from the US and Israel. Bromine settles in at a point, chemically, between Iodine and Chlorine. Many times Bromine is used in place of Chlorine, such as in swimming pools and water purification. One of the other big uses of Bromine is in agriculture. Here is it used to control or kill fungi, soil-borne diseases, nematodes, weeds, and algae. One the largest users of Bromine can be found in the fire and flame retardant production. This area uses between 1/3 and 1/2 of the worldwide yearly production.
When it comes to biological applications of Bromine we first need to look at Parkinson's syndrome. Essentially when you lose or have an extreme deficiency of Bromine, you will end up with Parkinson's syndrome. Almost all of the drugs used to treat Parkinson's are Bromine-based drugs.
Stands to reason I would guess, if a lack of the mineral causes the issue, then a charge of the mineral should help is dealing with it. Now, this is where we end up with a series of mineral and amino acid connections related to Bromine, of which I spoke of earlier. Here goes, stay with me OK? There is a part of the brain that is part of the Basal ganglia, called the Substantia nigra. This is a part of the brain that deals with reward and movement. This part of the brain is where Parkinson's seems to center around. What happens with Parkinson's is that this area is heavily populated with neuromelanin in the dopaminergic neuron. When the dopaminergic neurons die, because of a lack of Bromine, you end up with the Parkinson's. So the Bromine is thought to plan a vital role in keeping the dopaminergic neurons active and alive. But it is not as simple as it appears. What happens is if you end up with a high level of aluminum it depresses the Boron levels. Once this happens, it is almost impossible to restore Bronine to the brain at normal levels. Then since Boron associates with the same amino acid as does Bromine does. a loss of Boron then induces a loss of control with Serine, then a loss of Serine function, you end up with no control over Bromine which in turns leads to no Bromine and then Parkinson's comes for an extended stay. So really you end up with Bromine at the beginning of the sequence and then Parkinson's at the end, with several routes in the middle comprising of various minerals and amino acid functions.
The Basal Ganglia's part of the brain, the Substantia nigra, is closely associated directly with Learning, Eye-Movement, Motor Planning, Reward Seeking and drum roll... Addiction. In these situations, it is a lack of Bromine that is at the center. If you have the Bromine levels at sufficient levels, then these actions work as they should or a lack of Bromine will allow for decreased learning, and most importantly makes it very hard to deal with addictions. Since Bromine is very close chemically to Iodine, many times a Bromine issue is misdiagnosed as an Iodine issue. Iodine issues appear to display many of the same deficiencies that bromine does, but more or less just as an associated connection, not the full direct connection that Bromine has. So understanding Bromine overall is vitally important, and the Iodine, Boron, and Serine associations are of equal importance in understanding Bromine and its function in a biological setting.
Another factor in the Bromine saga is the use of Brominated Vegetable Oil. This is an oil, a vegetable oil or also known as a carrier oil, that is infused with Bromine. This really is an oversimplification of it, but that is a general idea. This formulation is used as an emulsifying agent to emulsify citrus-flavored soft drinks and, in general, many food-related items. The most notable one is Mountain Dew. Now the Brominated Vegetable Oil can be argued to be organic, because most of it is organic, except for the vegetable oil part, that would be the deciding factor. Most formulas will use this at about the 8ppm of the whole, so not very much. But then again on the other side, they argue that it is bad. I am not taking sides here as this is just a notation of application of the mineral or a concoction of the mineral. There has been a lot of controversy with this product, many European countries have banned it, but the US has not and regards it as a safe product. It is used widely in food products to keep the ingredients from separating, but most companies suing it has removed it from their products and the soft drink industry has committed to removing it, but it appears that they haven't done so with some of their products. Sometimes I wonder if the replacement is worse than the original item, such as this product, when you consider the replacement. If you play with this idea, with the soda pop using this item, the Bromine, serving to keep a part of the brain alive that regulates key actions, then consider the addiction to say the Mt. Dew that many people have, makes you wonder if they might really have a Bromine deficiency and they are taking care of it by using the food products that contain the BVO. An interesting concept, which I am not doing justice to the argument here, so let us move on, perhaps you can play with it for awhile, see what you can make of it. When all is considered, I am sure that the high amount of refined sugar or high fructose corn syrup is causing more damage than is the BVO. Which leads to a conflict as the sugar is addicting, but the Bromine is needed to combat the addiction. What a confusing mess.
Essential OIl Connection.
Here with this mineral, we don't find many essential oils that would directly contribute to alleviating the problem.of deficiency. But with the Herbal side, we do find a number of those along with the list of foods that will directly contribute to supporting the function of supplying at least some Bromine. With the essential oils, we see the following oils helping; Artemisia family of plants. You might know them as Sage Brush, Mugwort, Wormwood, etc. They carry a high level of Bromine as when compared to many other oils carrying this mineral. An interesting thing here is that plants from this family are used to help people get weaned off of Morphine. So we see the addiction factor coming back around, and a plant containing Bromine is used to help kick the addiction. Then as we move down the scale of ppm of the plants that are made into essential oils we find Cinnamon, all varieties, Onion essential oil, Basil, Dill Weed, and rounding out the very small amount of Bromine containing essential oil, we see Tangerine and Mandarin. So we can see a few commonly used oils and a few no so common oils in the Bromine containing grouping. As I mentioned, we have the Bromine deficiency issue creating Parkinson's. I haven't included the oils that are used to treat Parkinson's, as that is another issue and is not part of this discussion. However, I will mention that using oils on a person that already has Parkinson's will include mostly oil that manages the pain and progression fo the disease. There are a few that might move the treatment from management to correcting the issue, but that is as I said another discussion for another day. I would like to add a footnote here. Over many years I had observed the Dill and Basil working wonders on women that displayed a Basal Ganglia issue and a lack of Dopamine. I know they used these two oils all the time, but I never made the Bromine connection until just recently. I guess we are always learning.
Additional Discussion and Summary;
One of the most effective ways to obtain Bromine is through the diet. However, the mineral is very volatile when heated only a small amount. It could be sourced from vapor form, but it is known to be stinky. In fact, the name is derived from the Latin name of Stench, as it reflects the odor of this mineral. Somme of the food sources for this mineral is as follows, with the highest ppm listed first, then in descending order; Bladderwrack, Peppers- all varieties, Brazil Nuts, Cabbage - all varieties, Potatoes, Banana, Beets - all varieties, Parsley, Almonds, Rhubarb, Horseradish, Pistachio, Peas, Carrots, Coconut, Black Walnut, Filbert nuts, Pecan, Butternut, and, Cashews. I haven't been including weeds, aka- herbs, in the summaries of the minerals, but perhaps I should. Here are a few known weeds that contain Bromine at levels that are noteworthy; Stinging Nettle, Knotweed, Dandelion Leaf, Alehoof, Rowanberry Fruit, and Nothern Red Oak.
The actions of Bromine includes the function of killing Nematode worms, multicellular parasites and some bacterias found in humans. Also, some cases of Hyperthyroidism is treated with Bromine. It works like this, the Bromine competes with Iodine at the receptor sites in the Thryoid. So bromine helps to cut out some of the Iodine uptakes, so the Thryoid slows down. Simplistic explanation, but that is the long and short of it. So many times if a high level of food is taken in, usually that applies to people that eat a lot of Kelp, Seaweed, etc., then it can cause Hypothyroidism, so a downside to taking in too much Bromine.
There are a number of medicines that are Bromine-based, those are mostly used in medicines for Parkinson's and antiparasitic drugs. However, most medicines containing bromine is used for Veterinarian medicine applications. Potassium Bromate has all but been banned in most countries, however, some countries still allow Potassium Bromate to be used in baking applications, claiming that it is converted to Potassium Bromine, which they claim to be harmless. Also, Bromine was used as a sleeping aid in the past, but long-term use o fit caused a toxicity of it and that created a number of problems. Although not overly serious, problems none the less.
So there we have the rundown on Bromine. A necessary trace mineral and now you have an overall perspective on this mineral. Thank you for your time and interest.